发稿时间：2018-09-27 12:12:11 来源：继民财经汇
美国贸易代表办公室(USTR)周二刊登消息说，美国贸易代表莱特希则(Robert Lighthizer)，日本经济产业大臣世耕弘成(Hiroshige Seko)及欧盟主管贸易事务的执行委员马姆斯壮(Cecilia Malmstrom)在纽约会谈后签署了“美日欧联合声明”，声明内容如下：
2018年9月25日，日本经济、贸易和工业部长Hiroshige Seko先生、美国贸易代表Robert E. Lighthizer大使和欧洲贸易专员Cecilia Malmström夫人在纽约举行了会议。
关于第三国不以市场为导向的政策和做法的关切的声明 部长们重申关注并确认了它们共同的目标, 即解决第三国的非市场化政策和做法, 从而导致严重的生产能力过剩, 为工人和企业创造不公平的竞争条件, 妨碍开发和使用创新技术, 破坏国际贸易的适当运作, 包括现有规则不有效。
部长们回顾, 以市场为导向的条件对公平、互惠互利的全球贸易体系至关重要, 其公民和企业在市场导向条件下运作。 他们讨论了正在采取的行动和可能在不久的将来采取的措施。
因此, 他们指示其工作人员进一步讨论各种因素或迹象, 表明企业和工业存在面向非市场的政策和做法, 以加强非市场导向的信息共享第三国的政策和做法, 与其他贸易伙伴合作, 确定维持以市场为导向的条件的手段, 并深化关于执法和制定规则的讨论, 作为解决这些问题的工具。
关于工业补贴和国有企业的声明 部长们审查并确认了有关工业补贴和国有企业可能的新规则的进展情况, 以便为其工人促进一个更公平的竞争领域, 并企业。 部长们强调了确保公平竞争的重要性, 因为第三方发展中国有企业的挑战成为国家冠军, 并使它们在全球市场中松动--造成扭曲, 消极地影响到各部长母国的农民、工业生产者和工人。部长们认识到他们的工作进展, 并继续需要加深他们的共同理解, 在加强工业补贴和国有企业规则的基础上, 包括如何制定有效的规则来解决国有企业扭曲市场行为, 面对特别有害的补贴做法, 如: 国有银行贷款不符合公司的信用, 包括由于政府隐性担保;政府或政府控制的投资基金在非商业条件下的股本投资;非商业性债转股;优惠的输入定价, 包括双重定价;在没有可靠的重组计划的情况下向患病的企业提供补贴;和补贴导致或维持产能过剩。
部长们还确认, 他们承诺继续共同努力, 维持现有世贸组织纪律的效力。
在此基础上, 他们同意加强彼此之间的讨论, 并表示打算在2018年底之前推进各自的内部步骤, 以便在此后不久开始就更有效的补贴规则进行谈判。部长们强调必须确保主要贸易伙伴参与今后的谈判。
关于对第三国强制技术转让政策和做法的关切的声明 部长们回顾了他们的共同看法, 即任何国家都不应要求或向外国公司施加压力向国内公司转让技术, 包括例如, 通过使用合资要求、外国股权限制、行政审查和许可程序或其他手段。部长们认为这种做法是可悲的。
部长们再次谴责由政府所采取的行动用来支持外国公司的计算机网络未经授权侵入和盗窃, 以获取其敏感的商业信息和商业机密, 并利用这些信息进行商业性获得。 回顾强迫技术转让政策和做法为其工人和企业造成不公平的竞争条件, 妨碍开发和使用创新技术, 破坏国际贸易的适当运作,部长们将与其他志同道合的伙伴达成共识, 并与他们建立协商一致意见。部长们还同意深化对各种有害技术转让政策和做法及其影响的调查和分析。
部长们申明承诺采取有效手段制止有害的强迫技术转让政策和做法, 为此目的, 深化关于执法和制定规则的讨论, 以此作为解决这些问题的工具。
关于世贸组织改革讨论的声明 部长们就世贸组织改革的必要性达成了共同看法, 并就其监测和监督职能商定作为第一步, 共同发起一项透明度和通知建议, 以在世贸组织货物贸易理事会下一次会议上审议。
他们还同意促进加强经常委员会的活动, 并指示其专家讨论拟订一项可能的联合提议, 由三名成员共同提出, 重点是促进最佳做法和提高效率跨委员会。
过于宽泛的发展分类, 加上自我指定的发展地位, 阻碍了世贸组织谈判新的、贸易扩大的协定并损害其效力的能力。部长们呼吁要求发展中国家地位的先进世贸组织成员在目前和未来的世贸组织谈判中作出充分承诺。
关于数字贸易和电子商务的声明 部长们对数字保护主义的扩散日益感到关切, 并同意在促进数字贸易和数字经济增长方面进行合作, 并通过数据安全的推广。
部长们欢迎世贸组织电子商务联合声明倡议下的探索性工作的进展。 他们同意加紧和加快这一进程, 加深各成员之间对未来数字贸易协定中可能包括的内容的理解, 其目的是更新世贸组织规则, 以及这种协议。 部长们同意继续努力, 在尽可能多的成员的参与下, 及时展开一项高标准协定的谈判。
关于在其他问题上的合作的声明 部长们确认了相互协调的重要性, 以减轻贸易和外国投资对其国家安全的风险, 包括在适当的情况下继续合作三个合作伙伴的当局分享最佳做法和交流关于外国投资审查机制的信息。
部长们重申了它们在国际论坛上的合作, 例如 G7、G20 和经合组织, 以及在诸如钢铁过剩产能问题全球讲坛和政府/当局半导体会议等部门倡议中, 以解决扭曲市场的措施。
Joint Statement on Trilateral Meeting of the Trade Ministers of the United States, Japan, and the European Union
Mr. Hiroshige Seko, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, Ambassador Robert E. Lighthizer, United States Trade Representative, and Mrs. Cecilia Malmström, European Commissioner for Trade, met in New York on 25 September 2018.
Statement on Concerns with Non-Market-Oriented Policies and Practices of Third Countries
The Ministers reiterated their concern with and confirmed their shared objective to address non market-oriented policies and practices of third countries that lead to severe overcapacity, create unfair competitive conditions for their workers and businesses, hinder the development and use of innovative technologies, and undermine the proper functioning of international trade, including where existing rules are not effective.
The Ministers recalled that market-oriented conditions are fundamental to a fair, mutually advantageous global trading system and that their citizens and businesses operate under market-oriented conditions. They discussed actions being taken and possible measures that could be undertaken in the near future.
Accordingly, they directed their staff to further their discussion on various elements or indications that signal that non-market oriented policies and practices exist for businesses and industries, to enhance information sharing on non-market-oriented policies and practices of third countries, to engage with other trading partners on identifying means to maintain market-oriented conditions, and to deepen discussions on enforcement and rule-making as tools to address these problems.
Statement on Industrial Subsidies and State Owned Enterprise
The Ministers reviewed and confirmed progress regarding possible new rules on industrial subsidies and State Owned Enterprises so as to promote a more level playing field for their workers and businesses. The Ministers highlighted the importance of securing a level playing field given the challenges posed by third parties developing State Owned Enterprises into national champions and setting them loose in global markets – resulting in distortions that negatively affect farmers, industrial producers, and workers in the Ministers’ home countries. The Ministers recognized the progress of their work, and the continued need to deepen their shared understanding, on the basis for strengthening rules on industrial subsidies and State Owned Enterprises, including how to develop effective rules to address market-distorting behavior of state enterprises and confront particularly harmful subsidy practices such as: state-owned bank lending incompatible with a company’s creditworthiness, including due to implicit government guarantees; government or government-controlled investment fund equity investment on non-commercial terms; non-commercial debt-to-equity swaps; preferential input pricing, including dual pricing; subsidies to an ailing enterprise without a credible restructuring plan; and subsidies leading to or maintaining overcapacity.
The trilateral partners continue exploring how to increase the costs of transparency and notification failures and how to strengthen the ability to obtain information on subsidies.
The Ministers also confirmed their commitment to continue working together to maintain the effectiveness of existing WTO disciplines.
On that basis, they agreed to intensify discussions among themselves and expressed their intention to advance their respective internal steps before the end of 2018 with the aim of initiating a negotiation on more effective subsidy rules soon thereafter. The Ministers emphasized the need to ensure the participation of key trading partners in these future negotiations.
Statement on Concerns with Forced Technology Transfer Policies and Practices of Third Countries
The Ministers recalled their shared view that no country should require or pressure technology transfer from foreign companies to domestic companies, including, for example, through the use of joint venture requirements, foreign equity limitations, administrative review and licensing processes, or other means.The Ministers found such practices to be deplorable.
The Ministers again condemned government actions that support the unauthorized intrusion into, and theft from, the computer networks of foreign companies to access their sensitive commercial information and trade secrets and use that information for commercial gain. Recalling that forced technology transfer policies and practices create unfair competitive conditions for their workers and businesses, hinder the development and use of innovative technologies, and undermine the proper functioning of international trade, the Ministers will reach out to and build consensus with other like-minded partners. The Ministers also agreed to deepen their investigation and analysis of the full range of harmful technology transfer policies and practices and their effects.
The Ministers affirmed their commitment to effective means to stop harmful forced technology transfer policies and practices, and to this end, deepen discussions on enforcement and rule-making as tools to address these problems.
Statement on Discussions on WTO Reform
The Ministers shared a common view on the need for the reform of the WTO, and, with respect to its monitoring and surveillance function, agreed as a first step to co-sponsor a transparency and notification proposal for consideration at the next meeting of the WTO Council on Trade in Goods.
They also agreed to promote the strengthening of the regular committees’ activities and instructed their experts to discuss the development of a potential joint proposal by the three members focusing on the promotion of best practices and increasing efficiencies across committees.
Overly broad classifications of development, combined with self-designation of development status, inhibits the WTO’s ability to negotiate new, trade-expanding agreements and undermines their effectiveness. The Ministers called on advanced WTO Members claiming developing country status to undertake full commitments in ongoing and future WTO negotiations.
Statement on Digital Trade and E-Commerce
The Ministers shared growing concerns about proliferation of digital protectionism and agreed to cooperate in facilitating digital trade and the growth of the digital economy and to enhance business environments through the promotion of data security.
The Ministers welcome the progress of exploratory work under the WTO Joint Statement Initiative on Electronic Commerce. They agreed to intensify and accelerate this process to deepen understanding among members on possible elements to be included in a future agreement on digital trade aiming at updating the WTO rulebook, as well as the significant economic benefits of such an agreement. The Ministers agreed to continue work toward the timely launch of negotiations of a high standard agreement with the participation of as many members as possible.
Statement on Cooperation on Other Issues
The Ministers confirmed the importance of coordination among themselves to mitigate risks to their national security from trade and foreign investment, including the continued cooperation between appropriate authorities of the three partners to share best practices and exchange information on foreign investment review mechanisms.
The Ministers welcomed trilateral cooperation for the International Working Group on Export Credits to develop a new set of guidelines for government-supported export credits as soon as possible in 2019.
The Ministers reaffirmed their cooperation in international fora, such as the G7, G20 and the OECD and in sectoral initiatives such as the Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity and Governments/Authorities Meeting on Semiconductors, to address market-distorting measures.